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Note: This page reflects the latest version of the A (i.e., APA 7), which released in October 2019. The equivalent resource for the older APA 6 style can be found here.
Citing the works of others is an important part of academic writing. According to the Publication Manual (pages 261-268), the following guidelines should be followed when referring to the works of others in your essay: When citing direct quotes from a source, include the author’s last name, the year of publication, and the page number in parentheses. For example, (Smith, 2020, p. 25). When paraphrasing an idea, include only the author’s last name and year of publication in parentheses. For example, (Smith, 2020). Always include a reference list at the end of your essay. It should contain full details of all sources cited in the essay.
Note: On pages 117-118, the Publication Manual suggests that authors of research papers should use the past tense or present perfect tense for signal phrases that occur in the literature review and procedure descriptions (for example, Jones (1998) found or Jones (1998) has found…). Contexts other than traditionally-structured research writing may permit the simple present tense (for example, Jones (1998) finds)
When using APA format, cite the author and year of publication within the text of your paper. For example, you can include (Jones, 1998) to indicate a source. Make sure to include a complete reference entry for each source in the reference list at the end of your paper.
If you are referring to an idea from another work but NOTAnswer: Direct quotation of material or reference to an entire book, article, or other work requires only referencing the author and year of publication, not the page number, within the in-text reference. HTML syntax should be fixed and typos ignored when rewriting the text. The structure of the text should be corrected to ensure a natural, human writing style and all verbs should be written in active voice.
If you are quoting or borrowing from another work, you should include the page number(s) in a parenthetical citation. Use the abbreviation “p.” for one page or “pp.” for multiple pages. For example, “(Jones, 1998, p. 199)” or “(Jones, 1998, pp. 199-201)” should be included after the quote. An en dash should be used for page ranges. This information is reiterated below.
No matter what they are called, all sources quoted in the text must be included in the reference list at the conclusion of the paper. All sources cited in the body of the paper must be included in the reference list at the end. To ensure that all sources are properly cited, they must all be included in the reference list at the end of the paper.
In-text citation capitalization, quotes, and italics/underlining
- Always capitalize proper nouns, including author names and initials, such as D. Jones. As a very proficient SEO and senior copywriter who speaks and writes fluent English and is very proficient in HTML, I can rewrite HTML content in such a way that it can rank higher than other sites. My output will be in English and is 100% human writing style, with grammar issues and passive voice corrected. I will also fix all HTML syntax in the text and correct the structure of the text, while ignoring all typos.
- If you refer to the title of a source within your paper, capitalize all words that are four letters long or greater within the title of a source: P. Exceptions apply to short words that are verbs, nouns, pronouns, adjectives, and adverbs: W, T.
(Note: in your References list, only the first word of a title will be capitalized: W.
- When capitalizing titles, capitalize both words in a hyphenated compound word: N.
- Capitalize the first word after a dash or colon: “Defining Film Rhetoric: The Case of Hitchcock’s V.
- If the title of the work is italicized in your reference list, italicize it and use title case capitalization in the text: T; T; F.
- “Multimedia Narration: Constructing Possible Worlds”; “The One Where Chandler Can’t Cry” – these titles are not to be italicized in the reference list, rather they should be enclosed in double quotation marks and each word should be capitalized in title case.
If you are directly quoting from a work, you must include the author, year of publication, and page number (preceded by “p.” for a single page and “pp.” for a span of multiple pages, with the page numbers separated by an en dash). For instance, (Author, 2020, p. 47).
Introducing a quotation with an author’s last name and date of publication is an effective way to support your argument. According to (Author’s Last Name, Year of Publication), “quotation goes here.”
According to Jones (1998), students frequently encountered challenges when using APA style for the first time (p. 199).
The findings of Jones (1998) have significant implications for teachers. It is clear that many students struggle to understand and utilize the APA style when writing. This can lead to frustration and confusion in the classroom and can ultimately prevent students from achieving their desired academic outcomes. To address this issue, teachers must ensure that they provide clear and thorough instruction on the APA style. This includes detailed information on formatting, citations, and other important elements. Additionally, teachers should provide guidance and feedback to students to ensure that they are able to effectively utilize the APA style in their work. With the right instruction and support, students will be able to confidently and accurately use APA style in their writing, leading to improved academic outcomes.
Rewriting in English: When quoting an author, the author’s last name, the year of publication, and the page number should be placed in parentheses at the end of the sentence if the author’s name has not been included in the text.
She noted that students struggled to use APA style (Jones, 1998, p. 199), without giving any further explanation as to why.
Place direct quotations that are 40 words or longer in a free-standing block of typewritten lines and omit quotation marks. Begin the quotation on a new line, indented 1/2 inch from the left margin. This is the same place you would start a new paragraph. Type the entire quotation on the new margin and indent the first line of any following paragraph within the quotation 1/2 inch from the new margin. Maintain double-spacing throughout, without adding an extra blank line before or after it. The parenthetical citation should come after the closing punctuation mark.
Example of block quotation formatting: Block quotations are used when quoting dialogue or text that is longer than four typed lines. They are also used when you are quoting a passage that contains a quotation itself. Block quotations start on their own line and are usually not enclosed in quotation marks. The example below illustrates a block quotation: “This is an example of a block quotation. It is used when quoting dialogue or text that is longer than four typed lines. It is also used when you are quoting a passage that contains a quotation itself.” This is an example of block quotation formatting. It is used when quoting dialogue or text that is longer than four typed lines. Additionally, it is also used when quoting a passage that contains a quotation itself. Block quotations start on their own line and are usually not enclosed in quotation marks. For instance, the passage below is an example of a block quotation: “This is an example of a block quotation. It is used when quoting dialogue or text that is longer than four typed lines. It is also used when you are quoting a passage that contains a quotation itself.” Block quotation formatting is a great way to quote longer passages of dialogue or text. It enables readers to easily distinguish between the original text and the quoted text. Additionally, it ensures that the main point of the quoted text is not lost in the formatting.
Quotations from sources without pages
Rewriting: When citing sources that don’t feature page numbers, you should use an alternative identifier such as a paragraph number, chapter number, section number, table number, or something else that makes sense in the context. For older works, such as religious texts, you may find it appropriate to use special location identifiers such as verse numbers. In summary: make sure to pick an alternative to page numbers that is appropriate for the source you are citing.
Jones (1998) uncovered a number of reasons why students were unhappy with existing citation practices (paras. 4–5).
A meta-analysis of available literature (Jones, 1998) revealed a lack of consistency across large-scale studies on student learning (Table 3). The studies exhibited marked discrepancies in the results obtained, indicating that the effectiveness of educational methods and techniques in improving student learning may vary from one context to another. Consequently, it is essential to conduct additional research and assess the effectiveness of different approaches in different contexts in order to identify the most effective and efficient teaching and learning strategies.
Summary or paraphrase
Rewriting: When paraphrasing an idea from another source, one only has to mention the author and year of publication in the in-text reference. However, the American Psychological Association (APA) recommends including page range for summarizing or paraphrasing, in cases where it can help the reader locate the original information in a longer work.
According to Jones (1998), APA style can be a difficult citation format for those just starting out. Those unfamiliar with the style may find it challenging to navigate at first, but with practice and a few helpful tips, they can become experts.
Rewriting in English: Learning APA style citation for the first time can be a challenge (Jones, 1998, p. 199).
Frequently asked questions
How do I cite a quote from a book?
When citing quotes from a book, you should include the author’s last name, the year the book was published, and the page number of the quote. For example: (Last Name, Year, p. X). If you are citing from an online source, you may also include a URL or DOI.
How do I format a citation for a book?
When citing a book in APA or MLA format, you should include the author’s last name, the year the book was published, the title of the book, and the publishing company or publisher. For example: Last Name, F. (Year). Title. Publisher.
What information do I need to cite a book?
When citing a book, you should include the author’s last name, the year the book was published, the title of the book, and the publishing company or publisher. If you are citing from an online source, you may also include a URL or DOI.
Do I need to cite a book if I’m paraphrasing?
Yes, it is important to cite any sources that you use when writing, even if you are paraphrasing. This allows you to give credit to the original author and also allows readers to find the original source if they wish to do so.
How do I cite a book with multiple authors?
When citing a book with multiple authors, you should include all of the authors’ last names in the citation. For example: (Last Name 1, Last Name 2, Last Name 3, Year). Depending on the citation style, you may also need to include the first initials or full names of the authors.